UN World Risk IndexTwo Pacific Ocean neighbours of New Zealand rank 1 and 2 on a World Risk Index released in September by the UN University Institute for Environment and Human Security based in Bonn, Germany [Institut für Umwelt und menschliche Sicherheit]. Vanuatu at 32% and Tonga at 29% rank above such nations as Philippines, Solomon Islands, Guatemala and Bangladesh using four indicators of risk to natural disasters: exposure; susceptibility; coping capacities; and adaptive capacities. Although the index is focussed on suddenly occurring hazards like earthquakes and floods, it also includes chronic hazards like droughts and sea level rise – no doubt the reason for the position of Vanuatu and Tonga. Japan at rank 35 is the only developed country to have a Risk Index greater than 10%. New Zealand and Australia rank 119 and 120 [of 173: Qatar 0.02%], both at about 4%.