Outcome of the COP21 Agreement
The UN Conference on Climate Change in Paris 30 November to 11 December 2015 [COP21] confirmed the target of keeping global temperature rise to less than 2°C above pre-industrial levels, but added that the target should be 1.5°C, needed to protect island states most threatened by sea level rise. It was agreed to ask all countries to review their 'Intended Nationally Determined Contributions' every 5 years, starting 2020. Countries were encouraged to make progress to more ambitious targets and must not change them to less ambitious. They should aim to achieve carbon neutrality during 2050-2099; this goal will require ceasing to use the most polluting fossil fuels. Funding for projects enabling adaptation to climate change impacts must raise US$100 billion per annum now [donations and loans] and be increasing. Rich countries are to assist developing countries; rich countries and developing countries are to assist the poorest countries. A meeting in 2025 is to further quantify commitments to assist the poorest countries. Formal signing of the agreement takes place in New York on 22 April 2016. To come in to force, it needs to be ratified by at least 55 countries together representing at least 55% of global emissions.